Scientific Paper describing research work done using our designs of VOC analysers and electronic noses

Early detection and differentiation of spoilage of bakery products

Sensors and Actuators B

Rachel Needhama, James Williams b, Nikki Beales b, Phil Voysey b, Naresh Magana a) Applied Mycology Group, Institute of Bioscience and Technology, Cranfield University, Silsoe, Bedfordshire MK45 4DT, UK b) Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire GL55 6LD, UK


There is potential to differentiate between different types of bread spoilage using a Bloodhound BH-114 electronic nose. Microbial spoilage caused by bacteria, yeast and fungi, and enzymic spoilage caused by lipoxygenase can de differentiated from one another and from unspoiled bread analogues after 48 hours using Cluster analysis, prior to signs of visible spoilage. Analysis of the bread analogues with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified volatiles produced by the different spoilage types and unspoiled bread analogues. Microbial analysis showed that the levels of each micro-organism used increased with time.